Iron ore mining techniques, metal extraction, types of. Mining trends 4 underground mining methods metal ore global metal ore production is around 5,000 mty. Accurate analysis is vital for determining the commercial value and feasibility of a mine. Extraction methods in relation to subsidence and to surface use development of restoration and vegetation methods that are appropriate to the specific site conditions blasting methods that minimize noise and vibrations. In these deposits, iron often occurs as siderite feco3 or sometimes as oxides. With onesteel further rationalising its operations with the emergence of arrium mining, a dedicated exporter of iron ore, and supplier of iron ore to onesteels integrated steelworks at whyalla. The following iron ore specifications guide contains the primary specifications and methodologies for platts iron ore assessments throughout the world. Large iron ore mines are mechanized mines while manual mining methods are employed in the small mines. Iron ore mining is classified into two categories manual mining and mechanized mining methods. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the philosophies used in writing the simulation, issues arising during the development, and the solutions implemented to overcome them. Resour ce pa ck iron mining and processing in south africa. There is a high demand from the mining industry for more accurate, reliable and costeffective methods for the determination of metals in base metal ores. Increasing iron ore demand, coupled with the depletion of highgrade hematite ores in the united states, after world war ii led to development of lowergrade iron ore sources, principally the utilization of magnetite and taconite.
Epa 530r94030 ntis pb94195203 technical resource document extraction and beneficiation of ores and minerals volume 3 iron august 1994 u. The most predominant surface mining methods used for mining of iron ores are open pit mining methods and open cut mining methods. Iron ore inspection, sampling, testing, consultancy, laboratory outsourcing coal coke inspection, sampling, testing, consultancy, laboratory outsourcing. These are surface mining and underground mining sub surface mining. This problem may happen more frequently if a port receives mined ore directly from several mining sites. Detailed geotechnical site investigation and laboratory work are carried out to. Manual mining method is normally limited to float ores. Pdf presentation is about the iron ore open mining machineray and how to slect mining equipments and mining methods. Lowergrade sources of iron ore generally require beneficiation, using techniques like crushing. Exploration is the process by which the accumulations of iron ore minerals can be found in the earths crust. These are the timestamps used for platts iron ore assessments. Core barrels and drilling rig used in sampling iron ore 14 3. The harder part is to find new ore deposits and to define their extent and the iron content grade. Lowergrade sources of iron ore generally require beneficiation, using techniques like crushing, milling, gravity or heavy media separation, screening.
Open pit mining accounts for some 83% of this, with underground methods. The iron ore is separated from the taconite using magnetism. The grades or quality of the orebody are high enough to cover costs. Occurrence and extraction of metals module 6 chemistry of elements 16 occurrence and. Exploitation of existing iron ore deposit is the easier part of the mining operations. Electricity in mining by nature, mining operations are heavy users of energy. Iron ore mining methods vary by the type of ore being mined. The adaptation of mining methods best suited to the various natural conditions in mines is discussed, and comparative costs are presented. Michigan iron ore averages about 51 per cent iron natural. Extraction methods in relation to subsidence and to surface use.
In the experience of ten years they have been rapidly advanced, until now they are fully abreast of the best modern mining practice. Open pit mining accounts for some 83% of this, with underground methods producing the remaining 17%. The topsoil is removed and the ore is loosened by drilling and blasting. Ground magnetic and electrical resistivity survey were undertaken to investigate the occurrence and geometry of iron ore deposit around tajimi village, lokoja, northcentral nigeria. Examples of mining sites are described from the major mining areas of the pilbara in western australia and minas gerais in brazil.
Its parent rock, the iron formation, averages 20 per cent to 25 per cent iron. Pass out iron ore process page and have students fill in all steps of the iron ore process. However a few underground iron ore mines are also in operation around the globe. Data reported at or after these timestamps is not considered in the assessment process. The loi is a measure of the water content of the ore and an important step in iron ore analysis. Ironore mining methods vary by the type of ore being mined. The process of developing an iron ore mine from exploration data through to informed mining decisions provides an example of a complex adaptive system.
The iron ore deposit at dagu mountain is in the last phase of opencast mining and is in urgent need of transforming into an underground mining operation. Underground mining methods and applications production headframe hans hamrin 1. Iron fe is a relatively dense metal with a silvery white appearance and distinctive. Iron ore handling shi zhao, tienfu lu university of adelaide, school of mechanical engineering. The underground mining method kiruna currently employs is knownas largescale sublevel caving. From blasting to crushing to separation more than 85% of the iron mined in the united states is mined in northeastern minnesota to make our nations steel. Using explosives, the taconite is blasted into small pieces. Mining of iron ore is a highly capital and energyintensive process. Map of northeastern mississippi showing outcrop belts, etc. Geotechnical considerations for mining method selection of a.
Geology, prospecting and exploration for iron ore deposits. Underground mines are more expensive and are often used to reach deeper deposits. In all this upward movement in mining methods it is evident that necessity in a great degree compelled progress. Planning an iron ore mine issues in informing science and. In this method the ore is treated with a suitable chemical reagent which dissolves. Iron mining and processing in south africa iron mining and. The flow of ore and of information the company extracts iron ore from three mines. Iron ore body is initially planned to be mined by using long hole mining method. The two industries ranked together as the primary or basic industries of early civilization. Pdf geophysical prospecting for iron ore deposit around.
Simulation modeling of an iron ore operation to enable. Iron ore industry information asgco conveyor solutions. Surface mining or openpit mining underground or shaft mining to be competitive, iron mining must be done on a very large scale. Mining methods, surface mining depend on wa ter or another liquid e. Surface mines are typically used for more shallow and less valuable deposits. Open pit mining is used to excavate iron ore that is close. Underground mining has a lower ground footprint than open pit mining. Solution mining includes both borehole mining, such as the methods used to extrac t sodium chloride or sulfur, and leaching, either through drillholes or in dumps or heap s on the surface. There are four main types of iron ore deposits worked currently, depending on the mineralogy and. With geometric models, most of them are based on the ideal geometric shape. The deep mining of iron ore is unusual in the modern era, but in northern sweden, ore is mined from considerable depth largely aided by the application of automation and remote control equipment.
Hydrothermal ores these are iron ore deposits formed by hot solutions which transported iron and replaced rocks of favorable chemical composition with iron minerals to form irregular ore bodies. Environmental protection agency office of solid waste. Mining in minnesota cut and fill mining method 3d animation duration. Creating steel from lowgrade iron ore requires a long process of mining, crushing. For about half a century, iron ore at kiruna was extracted exclusively via surface methods, but about 1960, the pit deepened to such an extent that it became more costeffective to mine underground. However, those factors would have a lower impact on the process performance in iron ore mining than in, for example, copper or gold ores. Okubo encyclopedia of life support systems eolss effective for smallscale operations. Discuss the steps with students and allow students to fill in missing information to their notes in another color or inkpencil. The underground mining methods we use include room and pillar, narrow vein stoping and largescale mechanised. Arrium are the current major producers of iron ore from massive hematite deposits in the south middleback range. After the iron ore is out of the ground, it may be shipped to the iron and steel manufacturing. Roughly 98% of iron ore on the global market is used in iron and steel production.
When ore is fed into a blast furnace, the water contained in it. Deposits of iron ore such as haematite containing iron oxide are found in sedimentary rocks from which the oxygen is removed from the. Included in this article also is a discussion of the mining of iron and of its preparation for smelting. Life cycle assessment lca of the mining and mineral processing of iron ore in australia was carried out in this chapter using simapro lca software as a case study. Determination of metals in base metal ores using the. Bordandpillar method 65% recovery ribpillar method 90.
Iron ore is almost exclusively mined by surface operations. The ore is a product of a natural concentration of the iron by removal of its associated silica ore is not found everywhere in the parent material. Basic patterns of drill holes employed in opencast mines. Haematite and magnetite are the most commonly found iron ore minerals. Iron ore processing for the blast furnace courtesy of the national steel pellet company the following describes operations at the national steel pellet company, an iron ore mining and processing facility located on the mesabi iron range of minnesota. It is defined as a concentration of minerals that can be exploited and turned into a saleable product to generate a financially acceptable profit under existing economic conditions. This report summarizes mining practices of a large number of metal mines in the united states and foreign countries. Our extensive global network of laboratory and metallurgical testing facilities support most of the processes that are used in the exploration and treatment of iron ore. Common methods of extracting the iron ore consist of blasting, drilling, or general excavating. Resour ce pa ck iron mining and processing in south africa source. This model provides a method to calculate the volume and the.
For the iron ore exploration and mining industries, sgs minerals services provides a comprehensive range of metallurgical testwork services. It represents less than one per cent of the total volume of. This document addresses the mining of ores of base metals copper, lead, nickel, and zinc and of iron. Major iron ore mining is done in goa, madhya pradesh, bihar, karnataka, orissa and maharashtra. Geotechnical considerations for mining method selection of a potential underground iron ore mine in mideastern, turkey. First, a brief description of the method is provided, and the influence of. Indiaanks r fourth globally in terms of iron ore production. Iron processing, use of a smelting process to turn the ore into a form from which products can be fashioned. Beneficiation plants and pelletizing plants for utilizing. Most bauxite, iron, and copper ore is mined by open pit techniques, lead and zinc ore are principally extracted by underground mining. The source of the energy to power the equipment and systems at a mining operation is driven by economics, availability, flexibility, and infrastructure mining methods for all minerals can first be classified into either underground or surface mining. The ore body is too deep to mine profitably by open pit.764 348 1022 515 209 1454 1505 1112 251 1378 240 1346 1278 324 318 872 835 1432 1489 1253 1020 753 649 1141 114 1054 680 217 1083 336 516 1093